User Defined Function

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Overview[edit | edit source]

User defined functions (UDF) are added by NVSE V4. They must be saved as 'object' type scripts that must use the "Function" block type only. Although 'object' type, they must not be attached to any object and are instead called directly by script name from within other scripts, using the Call command.

UDFs may optionally return a single value of any type, using the SetFunctionValue command within them. They may optionally accept up to 15 arguments of any type, which are defined within curly braces:

scn SomeUDF

int arg1 ; * args are optional
ref arg2
float arg3 ....

Begin Function { arg1, arg2, arg3... }
    ; * do whatever like any other script

and called in a similar way to regular functions:

scn SomeOtherScript
call SomeUDF arg1, arg2, arg3...

However, to assign the return to a variable, Let must be used rather than set .. to .., and to use in a conditional, if eval rather than simply if:

let SomeVariable := call SomeOtherUDF arg1

if eval (call SomeSuitableUDF)
    ; the UDF return evaluates to true

Examples[edit | edit source]

scn GetRandomForm

; *** This script accepts a form list and returns one random form from it

; local variables
int iCount
int iChoice
ref RandomForm

; arguments
ref rFormList

Begin Function { rFormList }

    let iCount := ListGetCount rFormList
    let iChoice := Rand 0, iCount
    let RandomForm := ListGetNthForm rFormList, iChoice
    SetFunctionValue RandomForm

scn fnShuffle

; *** This script accepts a list array and returns it in a shuffled order
; ***

; * local vars
array_var aNew
int iKey
int iLast

; * args
array_var aList

Begin Function { aList }

    let aNew := Ar_Construct "array" ; * get a new empty list array

    while (Ar_Size aList) > 0        ; * while input array contains an element
        let iLast := Ar_Size aList   ; * get size of input array
        let iKey := Rand 0, iLast    ; * get random valid key for input array
        Ar_Append aNew, aList[iKey]  ; * append the random choice element to output array
        Ar_Erase aList, iKey         ; * erase that element from input array

    SetFunctionValue aNew            ; * return the shuffled array


The above example shows a user defined function that accepts a list array and returns it in a shuffled order. This might be called in another script, like:

scn SomeOtherScript

array_var aBeatles

Begin GameMode ; * or some other block type

    let aBeatles := Ar_List JohnREF, PaulREF, GeorgeREF, RingoREF

    let aBeatles := Call fnShuffle aBeatles

    ; * The Beatles array is now in a shuffled order


Accepting any type arguments (advanced)[edit | edit source]

In some contexts, it is useful to allow arguments of any type for a UDF. Since array elements can be any type, this can be conveniently achieved using the NVSE Expressions, * ('box') and & ('unbox'), and the TypeOf / GetType functions.

scn MyUDF

array_var AnyTypeArgument

Begin Function { AnyTypeArgument }

    if eval (TypeOf *AnyTypeArgument) == "form"
ref MyRef
int MyInt

call MyUDF &MyRef
call MyUDF &MyInt

Notes[edit | edit source]

  • UDFs may be used recursively by saving the script once first without the sub call.

See Also[edit | edit source]

External Links[edit | edit source]